George Santayana famously wrote, “Those who cannot remember the past are condemned to repeat it.” His words ring particularly true regarding cybersecurity issues such as passwords.
Authentication systems that rely solely on a username and password provide an unacceptably poor level of security for most Internet applications. Passwords are easily intercepted, stolen through social engineering, and even guessed. Predictable human factors result in password reuse across multiple systems, magnifying the impact of breaches. In December 2017, security researchers at 4iQ discovered a 41-gigabyte file containing a shocking 1.4 billion username and password combinations.
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